A billion Android phones vulnerable to new Stagefright bugs; Ghost Push malware evolves in Android app infection spree; How to find free Wi-Fi anywhere in the world; Slander-as-a-service: Peeple app wants people to rate and review you; Start menu secrets every Windows 10 pro should know; Classic Shell (free); Which Chromecast Is Right for You? Best Android smartphones for work and play: October 2015 edition; The best scanning apps for Android and iPhone; Netflix has seven new original shows for kids inbound; Skype brings real-time translation to Windows desktop app; Rhapsody Targets Parents With Launch Of A Music-Streaming Service For Kids; iOS 9 ‘Power User’ tips and tricks; Five apps for more efficient web form usage; 6 new Google Drive features you need to know about; Google and Microsoft make patent peace; iOS 9.0.2 patch fixes lock screen security flaw; Amazon will ban sales of Apple TV and Google Chromecast; 90 Movies and TV Shows Coming to Netflix in October; ‘Back To The Future’ Trilogy Is Free For Amazon Prime Members In October; The price of free: how Apple, Facebook, Microsoft and Google sell you to advertisers.
Slander-as-a-service: Peeple app wants people to rate and review you – whether you like it or not – This could be the most odious idea the internet manages in 2015: Peeple is an app that lets people rate other people, whether they like it or not, and plans to launch in November. The Yelp-like defamation-as-a-service – someone can put you in a database that you can’t be taken off, rate you 1-to-5, and comment on you as a person – was conceived by Nicole McCullough and Julia Cordray. Even The Washington Post, which got the PR drop, couldn’t manage to miss the nasty potential of Peeple.
“Unfortunately for the millions of people who could soon find themselves the unwilling subjects — make that objects — of Cordray’s app, her thoughts do not appear to have shed light on certain very critical issues, such as consent and bias and accuracy and the fundamental wrongness of assigning a number value to a person,” WashPo’s Caitlin Dewey writes.
How to find free Wi-Fi anywhere in the world – You don’t truly need Wi-Fi until you’re stuck in at a bus stop in west Tokyo, with no data plan and no idea how you’re going to get in touch with your brother who’s supposed to pick you up…sometime this evening. It’s one thing to find free Wi-Fi when you have access (even if it’s limited access that you’re paying for) to the Internet. Here’s how to find Wi-Fi when you’re traveling abroad.
Start menu secrets every Windows 10 pro should know – I’m not going to bore you with the easy stuff — pinning, resizing, renaming, moving groups, and the like. Instead, this guided tour takes you behind the scenes, to point out settings you may have missed and offer a few tricks that may save your bacon one day. Suffice it to say that the Windows 10 version of Start isn’t anywhere near as complex or malleable as the Win7 version — no custom folder hierarchies, for example, no drag-and-drop pinning to the left side. But it has inherent smarts you may find useful.
Which Chromecast Is Right for You? – Google’s Chromecast has been one of the most popular media streamers on the market for two years, thanks to its tiny design and $35 price tag. Google confirmed yesterday that sales have now topped 20 million. Now it’s getting replaced by two new $35 gadgets. The new Chromecast is rounder and more colorful than the original black key fob, while the Chromecast Audio is a different beast entirely. Let’s compare the two, and the original Chromecast, and see which is the best pick for you.
Best Android smartphones for work and play: October 2015 edition – There’s never been a better time to buy an Android smartphone. Not only is there a huge array of different handsets from a multitude of manufacturers to choose from, but what you get for your money is simply incredible.
The best scanning apps for Android and iPhone – Never bother with a scanner again. Thanks to high-quality cameras on today’s top smartphones and nifty behind-the-scenes tech, scanning a document or photo with great results is as easy as opening an app and snapping a picture. Here are CNET’s top picks for the best apps to turn your phone into a scanner.
Cortana can tell who you’re meeting with thanks to new LinkedIn integration – When getting together for a meeting with new people, it can be nice to know their background and what they do. Microsoft is aiming to make it easier for people to do just that with a new integration the company announced Thursday between its digital assistant Cortana and enterprise social network LinkedIn. When users connect their LinkedIn account with Cortana, the assistant will be able to look through their calendar and link the identities of people who are attending the same event with their LinkedIn profiles.
Skype brings real-time translation to Windows desktop app – Skype has just announced that its real-time translation feature has been integrated natively into the full desktop app for Windows. This allows users to conduct voice calls in their native language, with translated text appearing on the screen in real-time. For now, this live translation will only work with six languages (English, French, German, Italian, Mandarin, and Spanish), but 50 languages are already supported for text messages.
Facebook Starts Letting You Add A 7-Second Looping Video As A Profile Pic – To keep its decade-old social network lively, Facebook is introducing five big changes to user profiles, which are viewed 4 billion times per day:
The option to pin Featured Photos to the top of the profile
Temporary profile pics
Easier visibility controls for About info, including a new 100 character Bio field
A mobile-centric design with centered profile photos plus big sections for photos and friends
The ability to use a 7-second looping video as your profile pic.
The features begin rolling out and testing today for some users.
Google will update YouTube Kids with improved parental controls – After being reported to the FTC twice by parent and child advocacy groups for not being family friendly enough, Google is preparing an update for YouTube Kids that it expects will address the content issues. The updated version of YouTube Kids will be outfitted with a more robust set of parental controls which will allow parents to turn off search access and set their own custom passcode for the service. YouTube Kids has also gained an explainer for parents on how to set up those controls, and Google says the app is gaining Chromecast, Apple TV and smart TV support as well. Google is also asking parents to flag any questionable videos that may get through YouTube’s filters.
Rhapsody Targets Parents With Launch Of A Music-Streaming Service For Kids – As the demand for digital music streaming services heats up, thanks in large part to Spotify’s traction and Apple’s more recent entry into the market, a number of competitors are working to differentiate themselves from the pack. In the case of the 14-year-old Rhapsody, the company is today going after moms and dads by launching a new service that claims to be the first-ever streaming offering aimed at kids. That’s more marketing spin than reality, however, as kids’ music is certainly available on competing platforms, including iTunes, Apple Music, Spotify, Rdio and elsewhere. And like those other services, the children’s music found in Rhapsody KIDS, as the new service is called, is available to any Rhapsody subscriber.
Netflix has seven new original shows for kids inbound – Earlier this year, Netflix announced a handful of new shows for young children, and now the company is back with more than half a dozen additional original shows, all of them aimed at kids in the tween and teen age groups. Counted among them are two shows concerning LEGO’s Bionicle and LEGO Friends products. Also notable with the new announcement is the maker’s first original animated show for Latin America called “Las Leyendas.”
iOS 9 ‘Power User’ tips and tricks – Here, in no particular order, are a selection of quick and simple tips and tricks to turn you into an iOS 9 power users. Master these and you’ll find your iOS 9 productivity will go through the roof.
Tinder ‘Super Like’ is now available for swiping worldwide – Less than a month ago, social dating app Tinder introduced a new “Super Like” feature for when users come across someone who just seems to good to be true, giving them a way to express their interest in meeting. Until now, the Super Like was limited to a beta test among Australian users, but Tinder says the feature is now rolling out to user around the globe. Swiping to the right or left to reject or show interest remains the same, while swiping up is used for the new Super Like. Tinder says the beta period showed the feature had a positive impact on users’ experience, with the Super Like resulting in three times the chance to find matches, and conversations that last an average of 70% longer.
Screenshots: Five apps for more efficient web form usage – Like many people, I spend a lot of time filling out online forms. And the forms are never ending. There are forms for online shopping, travel reservations, liability releases, and way too many other things to list them all. Fortunately, help is available. A number of applications are available that can speed up the process of filling out online forms.
6 new Google Drive features you need to know about – Just in time for the school year, Google’s added new features to Docs, Sheets and Slides, its online productivity tools. But you don’t have to be a student to use these cool new features, since they’re available to anyone with a Google account. Here are our favorite additions.
A billion Android phones are vulnerable to new Stagefright bugs – There’s a new round of Stagefright vulnerabilities that allows attackers to execute malicious code on more than one billion phones running ancient as well as much more recent versions of Google’s Android operating system. Stagefright 2.0, as it’s being dubbed by researchers from security firm Zimperium, is a set of two bugs that are triggered when processing specially designed MP3 audio or MP4 video files. The first flaw, which is found in the libutils library and is indexed as CVE-2015-6602, resides in every Android version since 1.0, which was released in 2008. The vulnerability can be exploited even on newer devices with beefed up defenses by exploiting a second vulnerability in libstagefright, a code library Android uses to process media files. Google still hasn’t issued a CVE index number for this second bug.
Ghost Push malware evolves in Android app infection spree – The Ghost Push malware continues to circulate in the wild and has been detected infecting Android apps to compromise user mobile devices. Researchers at Trend Micro say the new variations are more difficult to detect and are pushing the malware epidemic to another level, with earlier research suggesting Ghost Push is infecting 600,000 users per day. The malware enters mobile devices through users downloading malicious apps offered by third-party hosts rather than the official Google Play Store. In total, 39 original apps — including spoofed versions — facilitated the spread, including WiFi Enhancer, Amazon, Super Mario, Memory Booster and WordLock.
New credit cards aim to protect consumers, banks from hackers – A chip implanted in new cards is designed to stop cybercrime. Starting Thursday, stores that haven’t upgraded their card-reading terminals will be on the hook for fraudulent charges.
iOS 9.0.2 patch fixes lock screen security flaw – In the last 24 hours, Apple began rolling out the latest patch to its new iOS 9 operating system, this time version 9.0.2. Along with fixing a number of bugs, including issues with iMessage activation, iCloud backups, cellular data usage, and screens rotating at improper times, this latest release also addresses the recently discovered lock screen exploit that would allow someone to get past the PIN entry and gain access to photos and contacts.
Records Of 15 Million T-Mobile Customers Swept Up In Experian Hack – T-Mobile announced on Thursday the personal information of about 15 million customers was swept up in a hack on Experian, a vendor that processes the phone company’s credit applications. The breach affects new applicants who required a credit check for service or a new device between Sept. 1 and Sept. 15. Experian said the hack did not affect its consumer credit database. The hackers obtained encrypted information from the records, including Social Security Numbers, drivers’ license numbers and Passport information. The hack involved names and addresses, but bank information and payment card numbers were not swept up in the breach.
Kmart customer details hacked – Kmart has employed IT forensic investigators after the personal details of its online customers were hacked. The Wesfarmers-owned company said no customer credit card or other payment details have been compromised, however, customer’s names, email addresses, home addresses, telephone numbers, and product purchase details had been accessed in an “external privacy breach” in early September. “This breach only impacts a selection of customers who have shopped online with Kmart Australia,” a statement from Kmart said. “If customers have not received a message from Kmart Australia regarding this situation they have not been impacted.”
Cisco fixes privilege escalation flaws in AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client – The Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client was updated to fix vulnerabilities that could allow attackers to gain system or root privileges on Windows, Linux and Mac OS X computers.
Google and Microsoft make patent peace – After five years of intellectual property and patent wars in the U.S. and Germany, Google and Microsoft announced they were settling approximately 20 lawsuits. In a joint statement, the two companies declared: “Microsoft and Google are pleased to announce an agreement on patent issues. As part of the agreement, the companies will dismiss all pending patent infringement litigation between them, including cases related to Motorola Mobility. Separately, Google and Microsoft have agreed to collaborate on certain patent matters and anticipate working together in other areas in the future to benefit our customers.”
Amazon will ban sales of Apple TV and Google Chromecast – Amazon plans to discontinue sales of Apple TV and Google Chromecast, two enormously popular streaming devices that compete with the company’s own Fire TV and Fire TV stick. Bloomberg Business first reported on an Amazon memo dispatched to all merchants on the e-commerce site, warning that both products will disappear on October 29th. New listings for either device are no longer permitted. “Roku, Xbox, PlayStation, and Fire TV are excellent choices,” the company said in a statement.
AMD to axe a few more staff as it struggles to get back to black – AMD has unveiled a belt-tightening plan that the struggling chipmaker hopes will get its finances back on track to profitability. We were told to expect changes after AMD’s latest dispiriting earnings report in July, although no specifics were offered at the time. You needn’t have been a fortune teller to predict that heads would roll, though. AMD has already shrunk its workforce by 8 per cent over the last year, and on Thursday it confirmed that there’s more to come. In a filing with the US Securities and Exchange Commission, AMD says it plans to give the axe to another 5 per cent of its approximately 9,700 employees, with most of those layoffs being completed by the end of fiscal 2016. It’s also planning to consolidate some of its real estate holdings, although it didn’t say where or how many buildings would be involved.
Twitter Will Reportedly Name Jack Dorsey As CEO, Bringing Back The Founder’s Instincts – The decisive leadership of a founder could be what’s necessary to bring Twitter’s value to the masses. And apparently that’s what it’s going to get, as Re/Code reports Twitter has made the decision to bring its co-founder and Square chief Jack Dorsey back as CEO. He’d been serving as Twitter’s interim CEO for four months since Dick Costolo chose to step down. The announcement could be made as soon as tomorrow, and head of revenue Adam Bain reportedly refused the CEO job as long as Dorsey wanted it. After months of confusion at Twitter among prevalent feelings its product must change to embrace mainstream usage, Dorsey could rally morale with the mandate only available to someone who started the company.
HP board sets corporate split for Nov. 1; HP Enterprise trades Nov. 2 – Hewlett-Packard on Thursday said its board has approved its split into two companies with one focused on the enterprise and the other on PCs and printers. The approval wasn’t surprising given HP outlined its split and financials for the HP Enterprise and HP Inc. last month. HP Enterprise will begin trading on November 2. Each HP shareholder will get one share of HP Enterprise for every share owned.
Samsung denies its TVs cheat on power consumption tests – Samsung Electronics has denied allegations that it designed its TVs to consume less energy during tests than they do in real-world situations.
Games and Entertainment:
‘Back To The Future’ Trilogy Is Free For Amazon Prime Members In October – Hold on to your 1.21 gigawatts. Amazon is offering the Back to the Future trilogy for free to Prime members for the whole month of October. This year marks the 30th anniversary for BTTF. Super fans may recall October 21, 2015, is also the date Marty McFly heads into the future to see what can be done about his kids. A partnership with Universal Pictures guarantees Amazon will be the exclusive subscription streaming home of BTTF – and it’s part of a push to add exclusive content to the platform. Both Hulu and Amazon plan to hook new viewers and sign-ups with special content. The “Everything store” is using this particular tactic to drum up interest in the 30th anniversary DVD/Blu-ray special edition bundle for the trilogy, set to launch on October 20.
Press Button, Skip Commercials on TiVo Bolt DVR – TiVo’s new Bolt DVR will, as the company puts it, let you “give commercials the finger.” The device’s SkipMode feature can bypass entire commercial blocks with the push of a button; no more fast-forwarding. At this point, it will work on select networks during primetime hours; where available, a note on the TV will say “Press to skip and resume show.” Participating channels include FX, HGTV, History, Lifetime, NBC, ABC, ABC Family, AMC, Bravo, CBS, Syfy, TBS, TLC, TNT, USA, Comedy Central, The CW, Discovery, Food Network, and Fox. QuickMode, meanwhile, lets you watch something 30 percent faster without making those on screen sound like chipmunks. “QuickMode’s pitch-corrected audio lets you comfortably speed through slow-moving programs like news, sports, and overly long award shows,” TiVo said.
Worlds Adrift preview: Surgeon Sim’s dev gets serious in floating island survival game – Worlds Adrift is “Survival Game on Floating Islands.” Er…plus flying boats and ancient ruins and a grappling hook and a wingsuit and some other crazy stuff. Here are the basics: You’ll spawn on one of the game’s innumerable floating islands (more will be seamlessly added and the map expanded as the game’s playerbase grows), gather resources, build your first flying ship, and then set off to explore. You can also glide around using a wingsuit, or swing around like Spider-Man thanks to an infinite supply of grappling hooks.
Rainbow Six: Siege and the sad death of the single-player FPS – Ubisoft is set to become the latest major publisher to leave a single-player campaign out of its next big first-person shooter. Rainbow Six: Siege, due for release in December, will not include a single-player story mode, according to an interview with art director Scott Mitchell that was recently published on WhatCulture. Of course, Rainbow Six: Siege is far from the only game to drop its single-player campaign. The new R6 game is in the same boat as Star Wars: Battlefront and, for owners of the Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3, Call of Duty: Black Ops 3. Last year’s Titanfall similarly eschewed a single-player campaign, as did Evolve earlier this year.
Microsoft announces Xbox One Lego Movie console bundle – Microsoft is continuing its announcements this week of new Xbox One console bundles for the upcoming holiday season. Following several other packages featuring a range of titles appealing to different audiences, today’s is one of the first child-oriented bundles: the Xbox One The Lego Movie Videogame Bundle. Priced at $349, the set includes a 500GB Xbox One console, along with a copy of the The Lego Movie Videogame, which is, obviously, an adaption from the popular Lego Movie.
90 Movies and TV Shows Coming to Netflix in October – The temperature is cooling and the sun is setting earlier. Why not, uh, Netflix and chill? Or at the very least watch lots of HGTV and Food Network shows because Netflix is adding the Barefoot Contessa: Back to Basics Collection, Genevieve’s Renovation, and other shows that will get you in the mood for fall. But that’s not all; read on for all the titles landing on the streaming platform this month.
Off Topic (Sort of):
Edward Snowden didn’t turn off emails from Twitter and received 47GB of notifications – Sometime between joining Twitter and sending his first tweet, NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden forgot to check his notification settings. If he did, he might’ve noticed that by default Twitter sends email notifications for pretty much every social interaction. For context, since joining Twitter roughly 27 hours ago, @Snowden has amassed over 1.19 million followers. His first tweet alone has so far been favorited 110,000 and retweeted 120,000 times. He accepts DMs from anyone, and has yet to respond to mine. He’s only used two hashtags, neither of which have ever been featured on @midnight. He only follows one Twitter account, and it’s probably not yours.
How Elio Motors Is Crowdfunding A Three-Wheel, 84 MPG Vehicle – Recently I had the chance to test drive the latest prototype version of Elio, a three wheel, two-seater built by Elio Motors. The vehicle, which is about half the width of a regular car and looks straight out of Silicon Valley, aims to eventually retail for a base price of around $6,800. As background, Elio Motors was founded in 2008, and is in the midst of fundraising to start manufacturing vehicles in a recently purchased old GM factory in Louisiana. The car, which is technically classified as a motorcycle because of its three wheels, has already received about 45,000 preorders.
Selfies are America’s new pastime – On Wednesday night, about a dozen members of Arizona State’s chapter of the Alpha Chi Omega sorority went to a Major League Baseball game. Two MLB announcers noticed that the women seemed to be enjoying taking selfies with their churros and texting more than they were enjoying the game. The announcers, enthralled, spend the next two minutes watching the girls and mostly ignoring the baseball game themselves, providing voiceover like: “That’s the best one of the 300 pictures I’ve taken of myself today,” “There’s my first bite of the churro… there’s my second bite of the churro,” and ultimately / weirdly bemoaning the chore that is parenting in 2015.
The price of free: how Apple, Facebook, Microsoft and Google sell you to advertisers – Because the latest version of Windows is always asking for information in the guise of being helpful, it’s easy to think that Microsoft’s the poster child for the collective attack on your digital privacy. But it’s not. In fact, there are plenty of other companies who feel perfectly entitled to require you to hand over your personal info before they open their doors. And while Microsoft has thrown itself on the ground, begging for forgiveness, you can make the argument that other companies are doing as much or more to mine your data. Let’s take a look.
From Kodak To Google, How Privacy Panics Distort Policy – When a new technology comes out, people are generally good at seeing through the hype that is associated with it. Many technological inventions, after all, are not immediately revolutionary — despite what clever marketers might want you to believe. While these fears often never materialize, and the public comes to accept the new technology as they become familiar with it, time and time again people fall into the trap of believing exaggerated claims about privacy risks for new technologies. To be sure, some technologies have challenged traditional notions of privacy, or even presented new risks to consumers, and to the extent that there are legitimate risks of consumer harm, these concerns should be taken seriously. However, it is important to recognize that the privacy panic cycle is a detrimental one — with a long historical precedent.
Something to think about:
“Beware of false knowledge; it is more dangerous than ignorance.”
– George Bernard Shaw
Classic Shell – Classic Shell™ is free software that improves your productivity, enhances the usability of Windows and empowers you to use the computer the way you like it.
The main features are:
Highly customizable start menu with multiple styles and skins
Quick access to recent, frequently-used, or pinned programs
Find programs, settings, files and documents
Start button for Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1 and Windows 10
Toolbar and status bar for Windows Explorer
Caption and status bar for Internet Explorer
Classic Shell has been in active development for 5 years and has over 25 million downloads.
The latest stable version of Classic Shell is 4.2.4
Screenshot from a personal machine – Windows 10 Home Premium 64 bit.
NoMachine – Turn your computer into your personal cloud. Take what’s important where you go, whether it’s at home or at the office. Wherever your desktop and your data is, you can reach it from the other side of the world in a few simple clicks. Did we say NoMachine is free? No strings attached.
Your own personal server
Private and secure
Access any time, anywhere
Share with who you want
Travel to any desktop – Travel from your desktop to any NoMachine-enabled computer at the speed of light. NoMachine is the fastest remote desktop you have ever tried. In just a few clicks you can reach any computer in the world and start working on it as if it was right in front of you.
Work with any content – Don’t feel limited. Enjoy live audio and video from your remote PC. Watch DVDs, the TV, Hulu or YouTube videos from wherever you are. Or render your animated models. Whether you are an artist or an engineer, your favorite software is always with you.
Meet with others where you work – Your desktop is where you work. Open your desktop for others to join in. Let your friends collaborate on the documents you are working on, share the files you need, help troubleshooting the problems you are experiencing. All securely and under your control.
Use any device – Your folders, drives and devices, travel across machines in a snap. Print a file located on the remote computer to a local printer. Or do the opposite. Plug in any device into the other desktop. Pendrives, scanners and all your disks are ready to use as if they were physically there.
Record what you do – Make a video of what you do on-the-fly. Capture that pesky bug or create recordings of your workflow to play back later. Show others how to get there, ask for suggestions, make presentations of your software and demos. Or record your preferred TV episode in a click.
ScreenSnag – ScreenSnag provides a quick and easy way to take a photo of your computer screen. Capture the entire screen, a region of the screen, a window, or an element on the window with a single hotkey or click. You can also use Timer option to perform captures at intervals that you define. Save any combination of your preferences as a profile and make the capture process quicker and more efficient. ScreenSnag is fully portable, which means you can easily install it on a USB removable drive and use it on the go.
Capture the entire screen.
Capture a rectangular area.
Capture a window or an element on the windows.
Perform captures at defined intervals.
Save the capture to a file (PNG, BMP, JPEG).
Save the capture to the clipboard.
Save any combination of your preferences as a profile.
In Pursuit of Freedom – The Pushback Continues:
Australian university dumps Google for Microsoft over data hosting location concerns – It’s little surprise that European governments prefer to host their data in Europe than in the U.S. — but now even Australian academics are expressing a preference for the Old World over the New.
On Monday, the CIO of Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia, told staff that Google can no longer be entrusted with their email and calendars because it plans to host them in the U.S., and not the European Union.
“Data security is our top priority at Macquarie University, and following a decision made by Google to move our stored data from Europe to the United States, we initiated a market search to look at alternative options,” CIO Mary Davies wrote in a letter to staff.
Macquarie’s choice is another U.S. company, Microsoft: By year end, staff mailboxes and calendars will migrated to Office 365, hosted in Microsoft’s Australian data centers.
Google has no data centers in Australia: Its nearest to Sydney are in Taiwan and Singapore, and it also has four in Europe and eight in the Americas.
But Google makes no promises to Google Apps users about where their data will be hosted. “Your data will be stored in Google’s network of data centers. Google maintains a number of geographically distributed data centers,” is as close as the service’s support pages come to answering the question “Where is my organization’s data stored?”
Company representatives in London were not immediately able to explain why Macquarie’s data would have been hosted in Europe, nor why it might be moved to the U.S.
The big secret that makes the FBI’s anti-encryption campaign a big lie – To hear FBI Director James Comey tell it, strong encryption stops law enforcement dead in its tracks by letting terrorists, kidnappers and rapists communicate in complete secrecy.
But that’s just not true.
In the rare cases in which an investigation may initially appear to be blocked by encryption — and so far, the FBI has yet to identify a single one — the government has a Plan B: it’s called hacking.
Hacking — just like kicking down a door and looking through someone’s stuff — is a perfectly legal tactic for law enforcement officers, provided they have a warrant.
And law enforcement officials have, over the years, learned many ways to install viruses, Trojan horses, and other forms of malicious code onto suspects’ devices. Doing so gives them the same access the suspects have to communications — before they’ve been encrypted, or after they’ve been unencrypted.